Seeds…For some, it might be a small part of any fruit or a plant but actually seeds are saviours of mankind. This statement isn’t an exaggeration because seeds are the only source that gives birth to new plants on which our
lives are dependent. So, one should be clear about the fact that seeds are one of the most valuable things on earth.
A seed is an important part of a plant. It is a fertilized ovule of a plant that consists of a seed coat and an embryo with the capability of germination, which in turn produces a new plant. In simple words, seeds are the
repositories that have genetic potential. Ten thousand years ago, the earliest farmers, living in the Fertile Crescent of countries surrounding the Nile River, the Mediterranean and Persian Gulf, worked to find the seeds
that grew the hardiest crop. They discovered some seed types from the wild grains produced more plentiful harvests. They began selecting these types (today we call them varieties) and began cultivating them every season
which ultimately led to the establishment of thriving stable communities, ending the nomadic lifestyle which was previously driven by a search for food.
The seeds market is projected to register a CAGR of 7.9% during the forecast period 2020-2025. In 2019, North America the largest geographical segment of the market was studied and accounted for a share of around 35% of the market.
The growing demand for grains, oils, and vegetables is a significant driver for the seeds market. The global population reached over 7.6 billion in 2018 and is expected to reach 9.9 billion by 2050. As a result, the global demand
for food is likely to increase by 70%, due to rapid population growth, urbanization, and changing diets.
Indian seed Industry is one of the most mature and vibrant one in the world currently occupying the 6th position with nearly 9000 Crore turnover. During the past 5 years the Indian Seed Industry has been growing at a
CAGR of 12% compared to global growth of 6-7%. In value terms the major growth has come from the increased adoption of Bt cotton hybrids, single cross corn hybrids and hybrid vegetables. The volume growth has mainly
come through increased Seed Replacement Rate in crops like Paddy and Wheat. Indian seed industry is undergoing wide ranging transformation including increased role of private seed companies, entry of MNCs, joint
ventures of Indian companies with multinational seed companies and consolidations.
Certified common seeds
Certified seed is the seed of a variety produced under seed certification standards to preserve varietal purity. Seed lots should also meet stated standards, including inert matter, different plants, weed seeds, and germination. Certified seed is free of prohibited noxious weed seeds. An approved seed removal plant and field review need to pass,
conditions all certified seed, and also subsequently be sampled and pass lab testing before it could be sold as seed.
Soybeans originate in Asia, and their fresh shell and dry forms are highly regarded for their yield, protein, and oil content, as well as a multitude of nutritional uses. Typically used at the green shell stage as “edamame,” other applications include green and dry cooking, flour,
soy milk, tofu, soy sauce, and miso. Dry soybeans average 40% protein and 18% oil.
The wheat seed has the ability to self-pollinate and also this feature eased the selection of distinct domestic varieties. Domesticated wheat has larger grains and the seeds (spikelets) remain connected to the ear with foul-smelling rachis
As the characteristics that improve wheat as a food origin also involve the loss of the plant’s natural seed dispersal mechanisms.
Paddy is the most important crop in India; it is cultivated in a higher ratio across the country. There are several different varieties of paddy seeds available in the market, and those seeds can be identified manually by looking at its various
features like shape, size, texture, etc., which sounds to be a tedious task for everyone.
At present, the identification of paddy seed variety mainly depends on climate change and the paddy field method in India.
Groundnut is an important oilseed crop suitable for cultivation in tropical areas of the world. Groundnut is believed to be a native of South America and scientifically known as Arachis hypogaea L., an underground legume, derived from Greek.
A unique feature of this plant is its quick adaptability to a wide variety of climatic conditions. Groundnut seeds are a rich source of edible oil (43-55%), as well as protein (25-28%). About two-thirds of world production is crushed for oil, and the remaining one third is consumed as nuts. The cake or meal is used as animal feed, and the shell provides quality fodder.
Chickpea, being a legume, belongs to the botanical family of Fabaceae, subfamily Faboideae. It is a semi-erect annual with a deep taproot. Worldwide, two main types of chickpea, Desi and Kabuli, are cultivated. Kabuli types, grown in temperate
regions, are large-seeded and mainly consumed as a whole seed. In contrast, Desi types, grown in semiarid tropical and subtropical areas, are mostly consumed as split dhal or turned into flour. Chickpea seed contains about 20% protein, 5% fat and 55% carbohydrates
Coriander seeds are plump and brown, have a hollow cavity which bears essential oils that lend to the flavor of the dishes when used in cooking. They are harvested when the plant turns brown, and its leaves start to dry and fall. Immature seeds are light green in color and taste quite bitter. Apart from being a popular spice in the kitchen,
coriander seeds are also known for their medicinal properties.
Cumin is the dried seed of the herb Cuminum cyminum, which is a member of the parsley family. The flowering plant belongs to the family Apiaceae, and it’s native from the east Mediterranean to India. Both whole and ground cumin seeds, which are found within the dried fruit of the plant, are used for cooking in several cultures. It also has many uses as a traditional medicinal plant – particularly because of its ability to help fight infections and aid the digestive system.
Seeds are chosen from the grass plants. The seeds may come from grasses which have not been mowed, but allowed to grow tall and also possess seed heads (called inflorescences) emerge, either flower (the flowering stage is where the small anthers, just one or 2 per floret, stand out to permit pollination by wind or animals brush facing it), then recede into dormancy. From the time of flowering to dormancy, the seeds at the inflorescence will form very similar to that of Broad-leaved flowers, with the seed growing in size (or as significant since the floret will allow) and hardening of this heart of that seed.
Gram seeds have a coat and are dark and small. It is beautifully cultivated in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Iran and Mexico. From the vegetarian culinary scenario, gram seed is a prominent ingredient. It is used for making curries. In southern India, green grams are picked and consumed as a snack, and the leaves are added in the making of salads.
Maize seeds are one of the most versatile emerging crops having more extensive adaptability under varied agro-climatic conditions. As it’s got the genetic yield potential on the list of cereals, maize is referred to as the queen of cereals. It is cultivated on nearly 150 m ha in about 160 states having full diversity of soil, climate,
biodiversity and management clinics that leads 36 per cent from the international grain production.